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Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu (

Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu (`Fenerbahce Sports Club`), commonly known as Fenerbahce (Turkish: [feˈnæɾbahtʃe]), is a Turkish sports club based in Istanbul, Turkey. It is a major multi-sport club that competes in football, basketball, volleyball, athletics, swimming, sailing, rowing, boxing, and table tennis, among many others, with many major honours won in each department, but the professional football and basketball departments are the most notable. Fenerbahce, often known informally as Fener, are one of the most successful and best supported football teams in Turkey, having never been relegated to lower divisions, and currently compete in the Turkish Super League and the Turkish Cup. They are nicknamed Sari Kanaryalar (Turkish for "Yellow Canaries") and play their home games at Sukru Saracoglu Stadium, their own traditional home ground in Kadikoy, Istanbul. The club`s name translates as "Lighthouse in the Garden" and comes from the Fenerbahce neighbourhood of the Kadikoy district in Istanbul. Fenerbahce has won 19 Turkish Super League titles, 6 Turkish Cups and 9 Turkish Super Cups, among others.[2] With 28 Turkish championships in total (19 Super League, 6 National Division, and 3 former Turkish Football Championship titles) Fenerbahce holds the record for most national championship titles won.[3][4][5] The club also leads the all-time table of the Turkish Super League. In international club football, Fenerbahce has won the Balkans Cup in 1968, which is marked as the first ever non-domestic trophy won by a Turkish football club. In UEFA competitions, Fenerbahce has reached the quarter-finals in the 1963–64 season of the UEFA Cup Winners` Cup and in the 2007–08 season of the UEFA Champions League. The club`s semi-final performance in the 2012–13 season of the UEFA Europa League is marked as its greatest achievement in European competitions. Fenerbahce is a member of the European Club Association. Fenerbahce is one of the best supported Turkish sports club with millions of fans in Turkey as well as millions of others in the Turkish communities all over the world. The club has a long-standing rivalry with other major Istanbul clubs, namely with Besiktas and Galatasaray. The Intercontinental Derby between Fenerbahce and Galatasaray is considered to be one of the fiercest and most intense derbies in the world.[6][7] Its name derives from the fact that the clubs are located on the Asian (Fenerbahce) and European (Galatasaray) sides of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul. Fenerbahce were founded in 1907 in Kadikoy, Istanbul, by local men Ziya Songulen, Ayetullah Bey and Necip Okaner. This group founded the club secretly in order to keep a low profile and not get into any trouble with the strict Ottoman rule, so strict that the Sultan Abdul Hamid II forbade the Turkish youth to set up a club or engage in the game of football played by the English families that was watched in envy. The three men came together and concluded that Kadikoy was in desperate need of its own football club, where locals would get a chance to practise the game of football. Ziya Songulen was elected the first president of the club, Ayetullah Bey became the first general secretary and Necip Okaner was given the post of general captain.[8] The lighthouse situated on the Fenerbahce cape was a big influence on the design of the club`s first crest, which sported the yellow and white colors of daffodils around the lighthouse. The kits were also designed with yellow and white stripes.[8] The crest of the club was changed in 1910 when Hikmet Topuzer redesigned the badge after Ziya Songulen had changed the colors to yellow and navy, still seen today. Fenerbahce`s activities were kept in secrecy until a legislation reform in 1908, when, under a new law, all football clubs had to register to exist legally.[8] The founding line-up included Ziya Songulen, Ayetullah Bey, Necip Okaner, Galip Kulaksizoglu, Hassan Sami Kocamemi, Asaf Bespinar, Enver Yetiker, Sevkati Hulusi Bey, Fuat Husnu Kayacan, Hamit Husnu Kayacan and Nasuhi Baydar.[9] Struggling with financial difficulties, Fenerbahce joined the Istanbul Football League in 1909, finishing fifth in their first year. Fenerbahce won the 1911–12 season of the Istanbul Football League marking this championship as the first success in their long history. Mustafa Elkatipzade introduced other sports to the club realizing that football should not be the only sport being practised; it is due to his efforts that Fenerbahce Sports Club was born.[10] Fenerbahce played against the staff of the Royal Navy that occupied Istanbul during the Turkish War of Independence. Some British soldiers formed football teams that were named after the players` speciality, for example Essex Engineers, Irish Guards, Grenadiers and Artillery. These teams played against each other and against local football teams in Istanbul. Fenerbahce won many of these matches.[11] The most known match played against the British was the match that would determine the winner of the General Harrington Cup.[12] Fenerbahce won the Istanbul Football League 16 times, the Turkish National Division 6 times, and the former Turkish Football Championship 3 times, all of them records, profiling themselves as forerunners and dominating side in Turkish football before the introduction of the professional nationwide league in 1959.[4][3] The Turkish Football Federation founded a professional national league in 1959, which continues today under the name of the Super Lig. Fenerbahce won the first tournament, beating archrivals Galatasaray 4–1 on aggregate.[13] The next year, Fenerbahce participated in the European Cup for the first time. They qualified through a 4–3 win over Csepel SC, being the first Turkish club to advance to the next round by eliminating its opponent. They lost their first-round match to Nice 1–5 in a playoff game after drawing on aggregate.[14] Fenerbahce reached the quarter-final of the 1963–64 European Cup Winners` Cup where it was eliminated by MTK Budapest. Fenerbahce won four more league titles in the 1960s and were runners-up three times, making it the most successful club of that era.[15][16] Fenerbahce was coached by Ignác Molnár at the time, a famous Hungarian coach who had introduced a new style of football in Turkey. Under his guidance, Fenerbahce managed to eliminate English champions Manchester City in the first round of the 1968–69 European Cup. In the 1966–67 Balkans Cup (a competition set up for Eastern European clubs from Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Turkey and Yugoslavia that existed between the 1960–61 and 1993–94 seasons), Fenerbahce won the cup after three final matches against Greek club AEK Athens, making them the first Turkish club to win a non-domestic competition. This success would remain unparalleled by a Turkish club until Sariyer and Samsunspor won the cup many years later in the 1990s, when the competition lost much of its popularity.[17] The 1970s saw Fenerbahce bring in the famous Didi as their new coach. Fenerbahce won four more league titles, including a double with Cemil Turan being the top goal scorer three times. The 1970s also established a rivalry with Trabzonspor, where for almost a decade Fenerbahce and Trabzonspor were competing each other for the title. The 1980s saw Fenerbahce win three more league titles. Under the guidance of Kálmán Mészoly, Fenerbahce managed to eliminate French champions Bordeaux in the first round of the 1985–86 European Cup.[18][19] This victory marked a turning point as for almost a decade no Turkish club managed to get past the first round in European competitions. Galatasaray and Besiktas dominated the Turkish League during the 1990s, combining to win nine out of ten titles. Fenerbahce`s only Turkish League success during the 1990s came in the 1995–96 season under the guidance of Carlos Alberto Parreira.[15][16] In the 1996–97 UEFA Champions League season, Fenerbahce completed the group stage with seven points[20] and, among others, defeated Manchester United 1–0 at Old Trafford, undoing the record of the English giants being unbeaten for 40 years in their homeground.[21] Fenerbahce won the league title in 2001, denying Galatasaray a fifth consecutive title. It followed up the next season with a second-place behind Galatasaray with new coach Werner Lorant. However, the next season did not go so well as Fenerbahce finished in sixth place.[22] Despite this, that season is memorable to many Fenerbahce fans due to a 6–0 win against arch-rivals Galatasaray at the Sukru Saracoglu Stadium on 6 November 2002.[23] After firing Werner Lorant, the club hired another German coach, Christoph Daum. Daum had previously coached in Turkey, winning the league with Besiktas in 1994–95. Fenerbahce brought in players including Pierre van Hooijdonk, Mehmet Aurélio and Fábio Luciano as a rebuilding process. These new players lead Fenerbahce to its 15th title and third star (one being awarded for every five league titles won by a club).[24] The next year was followed by a narrow championship over Trabzonspor, winning a then record 16 Turkish Football League championships.[25] Fenerbahce lost the title in the last week of the 2005–06 season to Galatasaray. Fenerbahce needed a win, but instead drew 1–1 with Denizlispor while Galatasaray won 3–0 over Kayserispor. Soon after, Christoph Daum resigned as manager[26] and was replaced by Zico on 4 July 2006.[27][28] Zico began his reign by signing two new defenders: highly touted Uruguayan international Diego Lugano and Zico`s fellow Brazilian Edu Dracena.[29] Zico also signed two strikers in Serbian international Mateja Kežman and another Brazilian, Deivid.[30] Fenerbahce`s 2006–07 domestic season started with a 6–0 win over relegation candidates Kayseri Erciyesspor.[31] In the 32nd week of the Super Lig, Fenerbahce drew Trabzonspor 2–2, while Besiktas lost to Bursaspor 0–3, putting the former out of contention for the title.[32][33] Fenerbahce won its 17th Super Lig title in 2006–07.[34] On 11 January 2007, Fenerbahce were officially invited to G-14.[35] G-14 was an association which consists of top European clubs. Under Zico`s command, Fenerbahce qualified from the 2007–08 Champions League group stage for the first time in the club`s history and went on to beat Sevilla to become a quarter-finalist in the 2007–08 season. Zico is also the most successful manager of the team`s history in the Champions League. After successful scores both in the Turkish league and international matches, Zico gained a new nickname from the Fenerbahce fans: Kral Arthur (meaning "King Arthur" in Turkish).[36] In February 2009, Fenerbahce became the first Turkish club to enter the Deloitte Football Money League.[37] Since 2000, Fenerbahce improved the club`s finances and facilities, bringing world stars to the club such as Ariel Ortega, Pierre van Hooijdonk, Alex, Stephen Appiah, Nicolas Anelka and, more recently, Mateja Kežman, Roberto Carlos, Dani Guiza, Dirk Kuyt, Diego, Nani, Robin van Persie, and Mesut Ozil. In the 2009–10 season Fenerbahce lost the title on the last matchday; Fenerbahce players were told that a draw would be enough towards the end of the match only to find out that the other critical game went against their favour, as Bursaspor beat Besiktas 2–1 to win the title. Despite the title loss, Fenerbahce ended the season with the most clean sheets (10), as well as the joint longest winning streak (8).[38] In July 2011, Fenerbahce fans invaded the pitch during a friendly against the Ukrainian champions Shakhtar Donetsk. As punishment, Fenerbahce were sentenced to two Super Lig games in an empty stadium. The TFF later allowed those two games to be filled with spectators; men were barred, while women and children under 12 were admitted for free.[39] On 29 October 2012, Antalyaspor ended Fenerbahce`s 47-match unbeaten run in the Super Lig at the Sukru Saracoglu Stadium. Fenerbahce had not lost a match at home since they were beaten 2–3 by eventual champions Bursaspor in week 22, on 22 February 2010. Fenerbahce won 38 and drew 9 in the 47 matches they played within 980 days since 22 February 2010.[40] On 3 November 2012, Fenerbahce pecked Akhisar Belediyespor to break a 181-day away jinx.[41] On 2 May 2013, Fenerbahce were eliminated by Benfica 3–2 on aggregate in the semi-final of the 2012–13 Europa League, one of the biggest successes in Fenerbahce`s history in UEFA competitions.[42] On 28 June 2013, Ersun Yanal agreed to take charge of Fenerbahce to replace Aykut Kocaman, who resigned in late May.[43][44] Ersun Yanal`s appointment coincided with tough times for Fenerbahce, who had just been banned from European competitions for two seasons over their alleged involvement in a domestic sports corruption scandal. Fenerbahce, which finished second in the Super Lig in 2012–13, thus missed-out on the 2013–14 Champions League, which it had been due to enter in the third qualifying round.[45] Fenerbahce finished the 2014–15 season as runners-up, forcing the board of directors to undertake some major changes. For the 2015–16 season, Fenerbahce brought in Vítor Pereira as their new coach. Portuguese star Nani, Danish defender Simon Kjær and Robin van Persie were added to the squad to fulfill the club`s ambitions to be successful in the Super Lig and European competitions. On 10 December 2015, Fenerbahce played their 200th European game against Celtic.[46] When it was first founded in 1907, Fenerbahce had a large squad. One of these players, Galip Kulaksizoglu, was the longest serving player of the original squad, spending 17 years at the club, retiring in 1924 after 216 matches.[47] Zeki Riza Sporel and Bekir Refet, the first Tukish footballer ever to play abroad, were among the first products of the Fenerbahce youth system. During his 18-year career with the club, Zeki Riza scored 470 goals in 352 matches, or 1.3 goals every match, making him the all-time top scorer of Fenerbahce.[47] Zeki Riza was also capped for the Turkish national team 16 times, scoring 15 goals. Cihat Arman became the first in a long-line of long-serving goalkeepers, playing 12 seasons and in 308 matches with the club.[47]Lefter Kucukandonyadis was one of the first Turkish football players to play in Europe. Lefter spent two seasons in Europe, playing for Fiorentina and Nice before returning to Fenerbahce. All in all, Lefter scored 423 goals in 615 matches for the club, helping them to two Istanbul Football League titles and three Turkish League titles. Another notable player, Can Bartu, became the next big Turkish export to Europe. He was also the first Turkish football player to play in a European competition final, doing so with Fiorentina against Atlético Madrid in 1962. Can also spent some seasons playing for Venezia and Lazio before returning to Fenerbahce in 1967. He was a four-time league champion with Fenerbahce and scored 162 goals in 330 matches. Some of the other most notable Turkish players who played for Fenerbahce include: Fikret Arican, Fikret Kircan, Halit Deringor, Melih Kotanca, Burhan Sargun, Nedim Dogan, Cemil Turan, Selcuk Yula, Mujdat Yetkiner, Oguz Cetin, Ridvan Dilmen, Aykut Kocaman, Rustu Recber and Tuncay Sanli. Former Romania goalkeeper Ilie Datcu was the first foreigner to reach 100 caps for Fenerbahce. In recent decades, Fenerbahce have gained an influx of foreigners who have helped the club to 19 Super Lig titles. Among these include Uche Okechukwu, who after 13 seasons with Fenerbahce and Istanbulspor became the longest serving foreigner in Turkey. During Uche`s career with Fenerbahce, he won two league titles and became a fan favourite. More recently, Fenerbahce have been the home to Brazilian-born Mehmet Aurélio who, in 2006, became the first naturalized Turkish citizen to play for the Turkish national team.[48] Alex is another Brazilian player who scored the most goals of all foreign players who have played for Fenerbahce. He managed to become top scorer of the Turkish Super Lig on two occasions (in 2006–07 and 2010–11), Turkish Footballer of the Year twice (in 2005 and 2010), as well as assist leader in the 2007–08 season of the UEFA Champions League.[49] Based on all those achievements, as well as his exemplary character and sportsmanship on and off the field, acknowledged by fans of Fenerbahce and their rivals alike, he became the most successful and renowned foreign player to have ever played for the club and one of a few whose statue has been erected by the supporters of the club in the Yogurtcu Park, in the near of Sukru Saracoglu Stadium.[50] Some of the other foreign top players who played for Fenerbahce over the years include: Toni Schumacher (1988–91), Jes Høgh (1995–99), Jay-Jay Okocha (1996–98), Elvir Bolić (1995–2000), Kennet Andersson (2000–02), Ariel Ortega (2002–03), Pierre van Hooijdonk (2003–05), Nicolas Anelka (2005–06), Stephen Appiah (2005–08), Mateja Kežman (2006–09), Diego Lugano (2006–11), Roberto Carlos (2007–09), Dirk Kuyt (2012–15), Robin van Persie (2015–2018) and Nani (2015–16). Fenerbahce have developed a strong following since their foundation in 1907. They are one of the most popular clubs in Turkey, with about 35% of the fans supporting them, and the most popular in Istanbul and Ankara.[51] They have a large fanbase throughout the country, in Northern Cyprus, Azerbaijan and in the Turkish diaspora.[52] Since the rebuilding of the Sukru Saracoglu Stadium, Fenerbahce`s average attendances have been among the highest in Turkey.[53] Fenerbahce have several supporter organisations, including Genc Fenerbahceliler (GFB), Kill For You (KFY), Antu/Fenerlist, EuroFeb (Fenerbahce supporters in Europe), Group CK (Cefakâr Kanaryalar), 1907 UNIFEB, Vamos Bien, and SUADFEB. Many fanzines, blogs, podcasts, forums and fan websites have been dedicated to the club. More recently, in November 2011 Fenerbahce`s Genc Fenerbahceliler created a friendly relationship with Torcida Sandžak, the organized supporters of Serbian club Novi Pazar. During a Super Lig match against Istanbul Buyuksehir Belediyespor at the Sukru Saracoglu Stadium, the Genc Fenerbahceliler and 1907 Genclik stand deployed a giant banner reading "Kalbimiz Seninle Novi Pazar" ("Novi Pazar, Our Hearts Are With You")[54] and after then, in the game against Radnicki Kragujevac in the Serbian SuperLiga, Torcida Sandžak members deployed a giant banner reading "Sancak`ta atiyor, Fenerbahce`nin kalbi" ("The heart of Fenerbahce beats in Sandžak").[55]On 2 March 2012, Fenerbahce`s Genc Fenerbahceliler and 1907 Genclik members were invited to Novi Pazar for the match against Partizan in the Serbian SuperLiga. Thousands of Torcida Sandžak members welcomed Genc Fenerbahceliler and 1907 Genclik`s 17 members.[56] "The big three" clubs of Istanbul, Besiktas, Galatasaray and Fenerbahce, have a century-long history of rivalry. The Fenerbahce–Galatasaray rivalry is the primary Istanbul derby and the most important rivalry in Turkish football; matches between the two teams are known as The Intercontinental Derby (Turkish: Kitalararasi Derbi). The rivalry started on 23 February 1934, when a friendly game between both clubs turned into a riot, forcing the match to be abandoned. The rivalry has led to violence among supporters on numerous occasions.[57] Torches, smoke, flags, and giant posters are used to create visual grandeur and apply psychological pressure on visiting teams, which fans call "welcoming them to hell".[58] Fenerbahce play their home matches at the Sukru Saracoglu Stadium,[59] their own traditional home ground in the Kadikoy district of Istanbul, since 1908. Most recently renovated between 1999 and 2006, its capacity is 50,509.[60] The club`s museum has been situated in the stadium since 2005, after having been housed at a variety of locations.[61] Before Sukru Saracoglu Stadium was built, the field was known as Papazin Cayiri ("The field of the priest"). The field, however, became the very first football pitch of Turkey, where the first league games of the Istanbul Football League were all held successively. In 1908, local teams of the league needed a regular football field, so this land was leased from the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II for 30 Ottoman gold pounds a year. The total construction cost was 3,000 Ottoman gold pounds. The name was changed to the Union Club Field after the club which made the highest donation for the construction. The Union Club Field was used by many teams in Istanbul, including the owner, Union Club (which changed its name to Ittihatspor after World War I), Fenerbahce, Galatasaray, and Besiktas. However, it had lost its importance when a bigger venue, the Taksim Stadium, was built in 1922, inside the courtyard of the historic Taksim Topcu Kislasi (Taksim Artillery Barracks), which was located at the present-day Taksim Gezi Parki (Taksim Park). Ittihatspor (which had close relations with the political Ittihat ve Terakki), was forced to sell it to the state, in which Sukru Saracoglu was a member of the CHP government. Thus, the ownership of the stadium passed to the state, but the field was immediately leased to Fenerbahce. Later, on 27 May 1933, Fenerbahce purchased the stadium from the government when Sukru Saracoglu was the president of Fenerbahce, for either the symbolic amount of 1 TL or the worth of the stadium which was 9,000 TL. The name of the field was changed to Fenerbahce Stadium, and this made Fenerbahce the first football club in Turkey to own their stadium, with the help of the government. In the following years, Fenerbahce renovated the stadium and increased its seating capacity. By 1949, Fenerbahce Stadium was the largest football venue in Turkey, with a seating capacity of 25,000. The name of the stadium was changed once more in 1998, becoming Fenerbahce Sukru Saracoglu Stadium, named after Fenerbahce`s president and Turkey`s fifth Prime Minister, Sukru Saracoglu. In 1999, the latest round of renovations and capacity increasing projects started. The tribunes on the four sides of the stadium were torn down one at a time, as the Turkish Super League seasons progressed, and the entire renewal and construction project was finalised in 2006, with the efforts of Fenerbahce president Aziz Yildirim and the team`s board of directors. Since the club`s foundation, Fenerbahce have used the same badge, which has only undergone minor alterations. It was designed by Hikmet Topuzer, nicknamed Topuz Hikmet, who played as a right winger, in 1910, and had made as lapel pins by Tevfik Haccar Tasci in London. The crest consists of five colours. The white section which includes the writing Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu ★ 1907 ★ represents purity and open-heartedness, the red section represents love and attachment to the club and symbolises the Turkish flag. The yellow section symbolises other ones` envy and jealousy about Fenerbahce, while the navy symbolises nobility. The oak leaf which rises from the navy and yellow section shows the force and the power of being a member of Fenerbahce. The green colour of the leaf shows that the success of Fenerbahce is imperative.[62] Hikmet Topuzer describes the story of the emblem as below: After the change of the club’s colours from yellow and white to yellow and navy, it was an issue to create an emblem with our new colours. My friends left the design of this emblem to me. Firstly, I brought together the colours of our national flag, red and white. Then drew a heart shape over the red and gave it a yellow and navy colour, adding an acorn leaf that represents resistance, power and strength. I wrote the club name and foundation date on the white section. When drawing our emblem, I tried to give this meaning: Serving the club with dependence from heart. The design was favored by my friends and our new emblem was made through the guidance of Tevfik Haccar, who was in Germany at time. After the new alphabet was approved, the design was protected, but the club name on the emblem was changed to Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu ★ 1907 ★.[62] [3][4][63][2][64] National Championships – 28 (record) National Cups Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Fenerbahce U21 is the under-21 squad of Fenerbahce. It plays in the Turkish U21 league, along with fellow U21 teams from other clubs. The team consists mainly of players between ages of 18 and 20; players over the age 20 are ineligible. In practice, a player in the U21 team who is 21 is removed from the U21 squad and promoted to the senior squad. Note: Zeki Riza Sporel scored his record eight goals against Anadolu in 1931, Melih Kotanca repeated this record against Topkapi in 1940. Tanju Colak scored six goals against Karsiyaka in the 1992–93 season. Source:[69] Source:[70] 1 European Shirt sponsor Fenerbahce Futbol A.S. is a listed company in Borsa Istanbul as BIST: FENER; Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu owns a 67.07% stake. The company had a negative equity of 424,317,388 Turkish lire; total assets of 311,233,179 lire; revenue 317,610,262 lire and a net loss of 181,234,264 in the 2014–15 season.[72] The club was required to have an aggregate break-even in 2019 (2016–17, 2017–18 and 2018–19 season), and more specifically a maximum annual net loss of €30 million, €20 million and €10 million in 2015–16, 2016–17 and 2017–18 seasons. Turkish clubs Besiktas, Kardemir Karabukspor and Trabzonspor (twice) also entered into settlement agreements in 2014, 2015 and 2016, with Bursaspor and Galatasaray being banned from European football in 2015 and 2016 respectively due to breaching overdue payable and the settlement agreement respectively. Sources